Suffrage cause grows from an alliance for temperance, working conditions, social purity
The main groups campaigning to get the vote for South Australian women were the Women’s Suffrage League, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and Working Women’s Trade Union. This alliance was concerned about the effects of alcohol, sexual purity and working conditions on family stability. To make change, they needed the vote. The Women's Suffrage League, set up in 1888, organised petitions, lobbied MPs and mustered many women to attend the debates.
Alfred Muller Simpson becomes Adelaide's great manufacturing innovator from 1864
Alfred Muller Simpson started an era of manufacturing innovation that lasted more than a century from 1864 when he became partner in the Adelaide business started by his father John. John Simpson arrived in Adelaide in 1849, having been apprenticed in 1820 in London as a tin-plate worker, and also studying science and chemistry, but ending up running a hatter business after joining his brother in a tailoring firm. Simpson was forced to migrate after a fire and the railway boom collapse ruined his business. After several unsuccessful ventures in Adelaide and twice visiting the goldfields while Sarah gave piano lessons, in 1853 John Simpson turned to tinsmithing, making pots and pans and supplying cans for the Glen Ewin jam factory. In 1862, he leased premises in Gawler Place, Adelaide. His son Alfred Muller Simpson, apprenticed in 1857 and as partner in 1864, took his father’s firm beyond its goods range from jam tins to snuff scoops. The innovative younger Simpson, one of the first members of the South Australian Chamber of Manufactures, introduced products such as fire-proof safes, bedsteads, japanned ware, colonial ovens and gas stoves. The fire- and thief-resistant Simpson safes became an early speciality of the firm and came to be used in offices and banks throughout South Australia and interstate. In 1878, Alfred Muller Simpson visited the Paris Universal Exhibition, which prompted him to mechanise his plants. He brought an American double-action press back to Adelaide along with ideas for new products and refining existing one. Under him, the firm continued to expand.
Kangaroo Island fails to sustain the colony’s first official emigrants; Light looks to mainland
Interest in South Australia was stimulated by explorations in the early 1830s by Charles Sturt, Collet Barker and John Jones, who all noted fertile country between St Vincent Gulf and the River Murray. But ship captain George Sutherland’s glowing description of Kangaroo Island must have fed into the South Australian Company selecting land around Nepean Bay near present-day Kingscote as its South Australian colony headquarters. But the first ships of settlers sponsored by the company found the site unsuitable soon after they arrived in July 1836.
Adelaide polymath J.B. Cleland giant collector/ researcher into fungi, birds, flora and fauna
J.B. (John Burton) Cleland’s botanical and naturalist studies have been called as important as his major contributions to Australian pathology and medicine. The first Marks professor of pathology (and bacteriology) at Adelaide University from 1920, he begin a study of more than 7000 meticulous autopsies. Norwood-born Cleland’s return to Adelaide revived his interest started as a boy with a gift from his doctor/father: M.C. Cooke’s Handbook of Australian Fungi (1892). In 1934-35, Cleland published two volumes on the larger fungi of South Australia –the only general Australian work on the subject. He also wrote papers on local vascular plants and presented nearly 30,000 plants to the South Australian Herbarium. His collecting included nearly 60 plant species new to science, described by John McConnell Black (strongly support by Cleland) and others. Ornithology was another of Cleland’s major interests. He donated nearly 1000 birdskins to Gregory Mathews’s book, The Birds of Australia (1910-1927). Wildlife conservation later absorbed Cleland. He was a commissioner of Belair national park in 1928 and chairman 1936-65. He chaired in 1922-68 the flora and fauna handbooks committee of South Australia that produced descriptive biological manuals. They provided unparalleled work on local, and Australian, flora and fauna. Cleland's biological collecting resulted in about 40 species or subspecies among fungi, vascular plants and animals being named after him, as well as a new genus clelandia in the plant and animal worlds. Cleland Conservation Park was named after him.
With ASIO watching, Reg Sprigg works on uranium fields at Mt Painter, Radium Hill
Reg Sprigg was sent to work for the South Australian Geological Survey in 1944 to reopen uranium fields at Radium Hill and Mount Painter. Without knowing it, Sprigg become part of a search for uranium to be used in atomic bombs for the Manhattan Project in the USA.He came in contact with another prominent South Australian Mark Oliphant who worked on the Manhattan project. Because Sprigg had been a union secretary, ASIO watched him closely as a “suspected Communist”.
Robert Barr Smith and Thomas Elder empires built on Wallaroo and Moonta mines loan
Robert Barr Smith and Thomas Elder built business empires on the payback from the £80,000 they borrowed to develop Wallaroo and Moonta copper mines in 1860-61.With the enormous wealth this generated, they opened vast outback agricultural land and set up a trading network of stock and station agencies. Barr Smith and Elder started two major companies of national significance – Elder Smith & Co and Adelaide Steamship – that thrived through to the second half of the 20th Century.
Light brings team and mistress Maria Gandy out on 'Rapid'; picks site ahead of Hindmarsh
In 1836, William Light was appointed surveyor-general for the colonising of South Australia. The first governor John Hindmarsh had recommended Light, who had been passed over for the governor's position. Commanded by Light, the bargue Rapid took part of his survey team (and his mistress Maria Gandy) to South Australia where he arrived ahead of his deputy surveyor George Kingston and Hindmarsh. He had selected the site for Adelaide as capital city before they arrived.
Thomas Cooper's first ale in 1862 starts family brewery now largest to be Australian-owned
Coopers, the largest Australian-owned brewery, originated in Norwood in 1862 when Thomas Cooper used an old family recipe to brew ale as a tonic for his wife. It soon became popular throughout the colony. Thomas Cooper passed on what became his brewery business to his four sons, the start of a chain of six generations of family control of the business. Coopers shares are primarily owned by the extended Cooper family, with a constitution and different classes of shares, decided in 1923, making it difficult to sell shares outside the family. In 1962, Coopers & Sons and the South Australian Brewing Company, as the only remaining Adelaide breweries, decided to ward off takeovers by swapping shares. Coopers sold their 2% of SA Brewing (at a big profit) in 1984 but SA Brewing held onto its 25% of Coopers until 1995. SA Brewing had been taken over in 1993 by Lion Nathan (who also made a play for Coopers) put the buyback and share arrangements in 1995 but the company firmly back in Coopers family hands. In 1968, Coopers made a significant move to produce its first lager, after 105 years of making only ale and stout. This was despite resistance by older board members, fearing it would compete with SA Brewing. Another big move came in 2001 with the move from the Leabook site of its original plant to much bigger premises at Regency Park. The energy-efficient plant brought state-of-the-art technology to the Thomas Cooper tradition.
From South Australian origins, Flying Doctor now part of aeromedical base at Adelaide Airport
Royal Flying Doctor Service is now at a $13 million aeromedical base, including a medical precinct with all members of retrieval services, at Adelaide Airport. The flying doctors' start is linked to South Australia. In 1911, the Rev John Flynn arrived at a Beltana mission where he saw the lack of medical care for in the outback. South Australians Alfred Traeger, who invented a pedal-operated generator for radio, and fundraiser Adelaide Meithke were key figures in starting the Flying Doctor. Its Adelaide Airport base will include a six-aircraft hangar, an enhanced patient care area with private bays and a corporate office.The South Australian Ambulance Service’s Medstar team now share sthe same precinct at Adelaide Airport. This move saves seven to nine minutes of travel time for medical teams.
Council purchase of LeCornu vacant site ending 30-year saga of failed developments
A 30-year saga over the former LeCornu store site in O’Connell Street, North Adelaide, took a hopeful twist with Adelaide City Council buying the vacant land in 2017 from the Makris Group. In 1989, the 1.6ha Le Cornu Furniture store, in the retail family for 134 years, sold to merchant bank Tricontinental (Trikon) and Oberdan family’s Kellyvale Group. Plans for a $40 million shopping centre and townhouses failed, along with a string of other hotel and residential proposals.
South Australian School of Mines and Industries promotes technology in education from 1889
The School of Mines and Industries came out of a South Australian government enquiry in 1888 that found education in technology was needed for mining development and to support agriculture and manufacturing. It contrasted technical education with that by the university and the Fine Art School. Secondary education at that time was largely private and, with Adelaide University, accessible only to a privileged few at that time. Apprenticeship training was primarily on the-job instruction. The South Australian School of Mines and Industries opened in 1889 in the Exhibition Building on North Terrace, later moving to the Brookman Building on the corner of North Terrace and Frome Road, in 1903. The famous Charles Todd was an early nominee for the school’s council president but withdrew in favour of John Langdon Bonython who was a council member and president for 50 years The Brookman Building, funded by a £15,000 gift from George Brookman, was also the home for Adelaide Technical High, set up from the defunct Adelaide Agricultural School founded by Andrew Ferguson in 1897, from 1918 to 1960 as preparatory school for the School of Mines and Industries. In 1960, the school was renamed the South Australian Institute of Technology. Increased building courses saw the name change again in 1963 to the School of Architecture and Building. In 1991 the school merged with the South Australian College of Advanced Education to form the University of South Australia. The former School of the Mines and Industry building is now part of the University of South Australia’s City West campus. Adelaide Technical High School moved in 1964 to become Glenunga Hugh School.
Nippy's adapts to make its juice an icon but Berri Juices falls to fate of foreign ownership
Nippy's Fruit Juices is a 100% South Australian family firm that's become Australia’s largest supplier of fresh fruit juices and a state icon. Founded by Alic Knispel in the 1930s, Nippy's adapted to having surplus Riverland oranges by successfully turning to making juice. Berri Juices was formed in 1943 using fruit that dominated the Riverland economy. But a takeover, leading to 100% foreign ownership, saw its Berri factory closed in 2010 and juice production moved out of the region.
Standing for election in South Australia open to all over 18; independent, minor parties effective
Standing for election to the South Australian parliament is open to individual Australian citizens aged over 18 who register through the Electoral Commission.
Political parties have dominated South Australian parliament but independent candidates have found themselves in powerful positions in supplying an extra seat to keep a government in charge. The Legislative Council voting system has been a way for minor parties, notably Nick Xenophon's, to gain seats and be effective.
Demonstrations on the steps and youth sessions part of public access to Parliament House
Public access to Parliament House, including demonstrations on its steps, and a youth parliament are part of the democratic process in South Australia. Sittings of the House of Assembly and the Legislative Council are open to the public who are welcome to sit in the visitor galleries. A radio broadcast of sittings can be heard through the parliament website that also presents education resources. When parliament isn't sitting, a guided tour is available at 10am and 2pm weekdays.
Tom Playford rides on South Australian rural bias of Liberal-Country League merger in 1932
With more Labor election victories under a first-past-the-post voting system, the Country Party merged in 1932 with the Liberal Federation (merging the Liberal Union and National Party from 1923-32) to form the South Australian Liberal and Country League (LCL). The key concession for the merger demanded by the Country Party was a 2:1 ratio to favour rural areas in the LCL structure and the state’s electoral system. Tom Playford's 27 years as premier would benefit from this gerrymander.
Incomplete network for cycling in Adelaide area presents dangers but websites offer links
During 2011-16, an average of four people have been killed and 69 people seriously injured annually in cyclist-involved road crashes in South Australia. This is partly the effect of gaps in the Adelaide metropolitan area network of bicycle lanes and bikeway that still suffers from gaps. While some major bike paths are free of motor traffic, most are still marked by lines at the side of roads. The state government website presents a Journey Planner, suggesting cycle routes between destinations.
State government and city council join forces on better bikeways in the Adelaide CBD
A $12 million funding split between the state government and the city council will upgrade cycling infrastructure across Adelaide’s CBD and extend the bike share scheme. The project will include fixing the controversial bikeway section of Frome Street bikeway. Options for an east-west bikeway through the city will be investigated. The options include finishing the Pirie Street and Waymouth Street upgrades and further routes along Flinders-Franklin and Grote-Wakefield streets.
Anglo patriotism lashes South Australia's Germanic settlers after start of World War I
The closing of 49 Lutheran schools and changing many town names was part of the backlash against South Australian Germans during World War I. The 28,000 Germans were South Australia’s largest non-British group. Although culturally diverse, German speakers in early 20th Century Adelaide city, could go through a day without needing English when they shopped, went to the doctor; read the Australische Zeitung in a konditorei (coffee shop) or dined in the city’s German hotels.
Anglican St Peter's from 1847 provides a private collegiate school on the elite British model
St Peter's College originated from wealthier early colonists wanting their sons to have private schools equal to those that they attended in Britain. They founded the Church of England Collegiate School of South Australia in 1847 in the schoolroom of Trinity Church on North Terrace. The school's foundation at Hackney was followed by first Anglican bishop Augustus Short, arriving with £2,000 from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge to set up a Church of England school.
Winifred Kiek first woman ordained in Australia, shares progressive outlook
Winifred Kiek became the first woman ordained in Australia, as pastor of the new Colonel Light Gardens Congregational Union Church in 1927. In 1923, Kiek had been the first woman to graduate from the Melbourne College of Divinity. Winifred Kiek championed sexual equality and the women's movement in South Australia, Kiek had arrived in Adelaide in 1920 to join her liberal progressive husband Edward, who had taken over running Parkin, a small Congregational theological college.
Church ministers, MPs, newspapers, business linked in 19th Century South Australia
The nexus of church ministers, newspaper editors, members of parliament and businessmen kept religion at the forefront of 19th Century South Australia. Premiers John Colton, Frederick Holder, Thomas Price and John Verran were all Methodist lay preachers. Holder owned the BurraRecord newspaper. The Advertiser was founded byJohn Henry Barrow, a former Register journalist and Congregational minister. Baptist minister James (“Dismal Jimmy”) Allen owned the Register.
Victoria Square site for cathedral blocked by supreme court in symbolic rebuff
The present site of St Peter’s Cathedral represents a rebuff to the Anglican Church 's authority in South Australia. In 1848, governor Frederick Robe granted land in Victoria Square, marked in Light’s plan for public use, to the Anglican church to build a cathedral. When the grant was questioned, Bishop Augustus Short went to the Supreme Court. who confirmed the grant was invalid. In response, Bishop Short bought land for the cathedral on Pennington Terrace. North Adelaide..
Bishop Augustus Short starts St Peter's College, St Peter's Cathedral and the theological college
As a high churchman, the first Anglican bishop of Adelaide (1847-81), Augustus Short, frequently clashed with his own predominantly evangelical flock and with the province's Protestant Dissenters. Short, educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, became interested in the high-Anglican Oxford movement. He was consecrated as bishop in Westminster Abbey in 1847 after choosing to come to Adelaide. In 1872, Short surrendered his claim to precedence over all faiths as bishop of Adelaide. He transformed the Trinity Church school in Adelaide into the Collegiate School of St Peter. He also started the building of St Peter’s Cathedral (1869) and founded St Barnabas Theological College (1880).
Christian settlers can't grasp Aboriginal culture as spiritual without civilisation
South Australia’s Aboriginal people didn’t need churches. The land was their spirituality. Europeans settlers generally didn’t grasp or accept this concept. They saw Aboriginal nomadic traditions as primitive tribalism. in 1838, Governor George Gawler' told the “natives”: “You cannot be happy unless you imitate good white men. Build huts, wear clothes, work and be useful. Above all things, you cannot be happy unless you love God who made heaven and earth and men and all things”.